Redating the exodus

01-Feb-2017 18:49 by 5 Comments

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At both Tell Beit Mirsim and Beitin the destruction of a relatively prosperous Late Bronze Age city was followed by a much poorer Iron Age I culture, which Albright identified as Israelite.

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In this passage Jephthah stated in a letter to the king of Ammon, “for three hundred years Israel occupied Heshbon, Aroer, the surrounding settlements and all the towns along the Arnon.” Although it is not possible to calculate precise dates for Jephthah, various scholars have estimated the beginning of his judgeship between 11 BC, One of the main arguments for an early 13th century date for the exodus is the mention of the name Rameses in Exod (see below).Albright assigned a hieratic inscription dated to “regnal year four” found at Lachish to the fourth year of Merenptah and used it to date the conquest to ca.1230 BC, based on the high Egyptian chronology in use at the time.Only three cities are recorded as having been destroyed by fire by the Israelites: Jericho (Josh ), Ai (Josh ), and Hazor (Josh ).Assigning the 1230 BC destruction at Hazor to Joshua results in a major conflict with the biblical narrative.Exod 1 presents a series of events: oppression (including the building of Pithom and Rameses, vs. 12a), fear of the Israelites on the part of the Egyptians (vs.

12b), command to kill all newborn Israelite males (vs. This series of events is then followed by the birth of Moses (Exod 2:1).The water then covered “the entire army of Pharaoh,” such that “not one of them survived” (Exod ).More explicit are Pss 1, “The waters covered their adversaries; not one of them survived” and 1, “[the Lord] swept Pharaoh and his army into the Since the Israelites were employed to build a city which is called “Rameses” in Exod , Kitchen and those who hold to a 13th century exodus presume it was the delta capital Pi-Ramesse built by Rameses II.There was a long history of occupation in the area of Pi-Ramesse, with several names being given to the various cities there. Editorial updating of names that had gone out of use is not uncommon in the Hebrew Bible.possibly due to silting of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. Other examples are Bethel, named by Jacob in Gen , but used proleptically in Gen 12:8 and 13:3; Dan, named by the Danites in Judg and used proleptically in Gen ; and Samaria, named by Omri in 1 Kgs and used proleptically in 1 Kgs .1210 BC, as Israel was settled in Canaan by this time according to Merenptah’s famous stela.

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