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By Kurt Kleiner Circumcision and other forms of male genital mutilation have always been a puzzle.The ritual mutilations can leave the man vulnerable to infection and even death.

In some forms of mutilation, the handicap to sperm competition is obvious.Especially in societies where paternity uncertainty and reproductive conflict are high, the social benefits of MGM as a signal may outweigh its costs.This sexual conflict hypothesis predicts that MGM should be associated with polygyny, particularly when co-wives reside far apart, and that MGM should reduce the frequency of extramarital sex.Wilson Abstract Male genital mutilation (MGM) takes several forms and occurs in about 25% of societies.This behavior has puzzled anthropologists, doctors and theologians for centuries, and presents an evolutionary challenge since it involves dangerous and costly surgery.READERS: The latex genitalia study wasn't terribly convincing because the models were circumcised, and in real life the foreskin would interfere with the semen-displacing functions of the coronal ridge.

So, does the foreskin pose a problem for the semen displacement theory?I also examined an alternative hypothesis suggesting that MGM signals group commitment for collective action, particularly inter-societal warfare.Although other forms of male scarification fit this model, the distribution of MGM is not predicted by frequency of inter-societal warfare. put forward a theory that the shape of the glans has evolved with the function of pumping a rival's sperm out of the vagina, tending to ensure that a child born after that intercourse is that of the man concerned and not an earlier one.But if a man with, say, four wives wants to ensure that any children his wives produce are his, there is pressure to make sure other men cant successfully impregnate them. If the sperm competition theory is correct, he reasoned, then male genital mutilation should be more common in societies where men tend to have multiple wives, especially those in which the wives live apart from the husband. Wilson searched anthropological databases and found that his predictions were borne out: 48% of highly polygynous societies practice some form of male genital mutilation, and in societies in which wives live in separate households that increases to 63%.The husbands own reproductive ability is impaired, but continuous and repeated access to his wives makes up for it, while any genital mutilation is a greater handicap to an interloper trying to sneak brief occasional sex with his wives. The mutilation would also probably be carried out in a public setting, witnessed mostly by other men, and performed by a non-relative. Only 14% of the monogamous societies in the database practice male genital mutilation.Men who display this signal of sexual obedience may gain social benefits if married men are selected to offer social trust and investment preferentially to peers who are less threatening to their paternity.